LED indicators

How to understand LED
indicators with good quality and cost-effective

There are very few factories specializing in the production of LED indicators in the world, especially in the European and American markets. LED indicators are a niche market, and large companies generally do not produce such products.

Famous Indicator Company

What are the relatively large-scale LED INDICATORS manufacturers in the world?

At present, the scale of the factory that produces LED indicator lights is very small, and the testing equipment invested is not comprehensive. Among them, APEM in Europe, KINGBRIHT and LEDLIGHT in the United States are better. In China, FILN is a better brand for LED indicator lights. The establishment of other factories is not long, and the understanding of LED indicators is not comprehensive.

What is the difference between LED indicator factories in Europe and FILN in China?

If you buy LED indicators from companies such as APEM, not only the product price is high, the logistics time is long, and the styles are not many. Companies that produce LED indicators in China, such as FILN, do very professionally. Not only are the products of good quality, low price and short delivery time, they also have passed international certifications such as UL and CE. If the cooperating factory is not professional, there will be many problems with the LED indicator, such as the light does not turn on, the wire is broken, the terminal is not tight, and so on.

How do we find a good quality and suitable LED indicator company?

First, you need to understand the professional knowledge of LED indicators, and ask the supplier's product related questions through this professional knowledge.

How do we find a good quality and suitable LED indicator company?

I will explain the LED indicator in detail below. If you have a complete grasp of all the product details related to LED indicators, you are already an engineer of LED indicators.

So now I will explain the details of the LED indicator
from the following aspects.

The head of LED indicators

Why should PC material be used for the head of led indicators?

Because the head of the LED indicators needs to transmit light, the PC material plastic is basically used.

PC material has good light transmittance, impact resistance, ultraviolet radiation resistance, dimensional stability of its products and good molding and processing performance, making it have obvious technical performance advantages than traditional inorganic glass used in the construction industry. At the same time, PC materials also have good impact resistance, thermal distortion resistance, good weather resistance and high hardness, especially the Bayer brand PC materials, which have high temperature resistance, which can reach 180 degrees.

How many appearance shapes are there for LED indicators?

LED indicators can be used in a variety of different ways.
The shape of the LED, such as the flat head, the convex head, the diamond type, and the head of the LED indicators can also be made of various styles and lines.

The LED lights will turn into a variety of dazzling lights under the guidance of the plastic lines of the LED indicators, which look very beautiful.

The heads of LED indicators can also be painted. After painting, you can turn off the machine to engrave various patterns and letters. When the light is on, the letters and patterns will light up very beautifully, Especially in line with customer groups that require personalization and customization.

If other materials are used for production, the luminous effect may be bad.

PC materials can also produce a variety of different colors, and can withstand steam, cleaning agents, heating and high-dose radiation sterilization, and will not turn yellow and physical properties, and will not change color after a long time, So PC is the first material of choice for the head of led indicators.

LED indicator metal parts

There are very few factories specializing in the production of LED indicators in the world, especially in the European and American markets. LED indicators are a niche market, and large companies generally do not produce such products.

How many materials are there in the metal shell of LED indicators?

The metal shell is divided into 3 kinds of materials, one is brass, 2 is stainless steel, and 3 is zinc alloy.

Why use zinc alloy as the housing material of led indicators?

First introduce is the brass material. The brass uses H59 copper. Its advantages are high strength, high hardness and good plasticity. It can still withstand pressure processing well under hot conditions. If you use less copper, copper parts may be break. The copper shell of LED indicators can also be electroplated. which is very important. The quality of electroplating directly determines the grade of the entire product. The electroplating process is divided into two types: nickel and chromium.

The nickel plating is beautiful and can be used as decoration, but the process is slightly complicated, the color is silvery white and yellow, and the appearance is like stainless steel. The high-end atmosphere of the electroplated products.

Chrome plating looks very beautiful. It not only has a bright appearance and good abrasion resistance, but also increases the hardness and wear resistance of metal parts, which can play a good decorative role.

There are also two processes for producing LED indicators copper parts, one is instrument production and the other is CNC production. The copper parts of LED indicators produced by the instrument are rough in appearance, low in precision, and fast in production. One instrument can produce about 3,000 copper parts, and the cost is relatively low.

The copper parts of LED indicators produced by the speed control machine have very high precision and slow production efficiency. They can only produce about 500 per day, so the cost is relatively high.

Why use zinc alloy as the housing material of led indicators?

Because of the corrosion resistance of stainless steel materials, 304 and 316L materials are usually used for stainless steel, and 304 stainless steel is cheaper than 316L materials. 304 material can be used in ordinary places, but if it is used at the seaside or in an environment with sulfuric acid, try to use 316L stainless steel as the raw material for the housing of LED indicators. 316L stainless steel is very resistant to corrosion and can also kill the new coronavirus. According to research by American scientists, the new coronavirus can only survive for 20 minutes on the surface of stainless steel.

Why use zinc alloy as the housing material of led indicators?

Because zinc alloy can be electroplated in a variety of different colors, such as red, yellow, green, blue, white, and black, making the LED indicators look as beautiful as wearing clothes. The outer shells of zinc alloy LED indicators on the market are mostly ordinary oxidized, and will oxidize over time. If you want the color not to fade, use vacuum plating, by this the color will not fade, while the cost is relatively high.

How many installation dimensions of LED indicators are there?

The style and size of the metal housing of the LED indicator can be customized according to customer needs. Commonly used sizes are 5MM, 6MM, 8MM, 9MM, 10MM, 12MM, 14MM, 16MM, 19MM, 22MM, 25MM, 28MM, 30MM, etc. In addition, more special sizes can be customized.

What is the difference between a neon lamp and an LED?

Next, let’s talk about the light bulb of the LED indicators. It is very important and is equivalent to the heart of the human body. LED indicators bulbs are divided into neon lights and LED. If used in an environment with a high temperature resistance of more than 200 degrees, it is recommended to use neon lights as the bulbs of LED indicators. Because neon lights have high temperature resistance, it is usually more than 300 degrees. The disadvantage of the neon lamp is that the light is too dark and the service life is relatively short, and it will be broken after 25,000 hours.

LED are different, so now LED indicators basically use LED as their light source. LED sizes are 3MM, 5MM, 8MM, 10MM, 12MM, etc. The appearance styles of LED are semicircular, square, cylindrical, etc. LED is divided into single color, double color and three color. The following is a detailed introduction to the LED in the LED display.

There are two types of monochromatic LED: single flash and long-bright. Single-blink LED are produced according to your needs as many times as you want to flash per minute. Long-bright means that the LED is always on. Let’s introduce the long-bright LED of LED indicators in detail.

What are the LED parameters?

Brightness, because the brightness of LED lamp beads is different, the price is also different. The brightness of LED is generally divided into 60-70 lm, and the brightness of another lamp bead is 80-90 lm.

into 60-70 lm, and the brightness of another lamp bead is 80-90 lm.
The brightness of 1W red light is generally 30-40 lm;
The brightness of 1W green light is generally 60-80 lm;
The brightness of 1W yellow light is generally 30-50 lm
The brightness of 1W blue light is generally 20-30 lm.
Note: 1W brightness is 60-110lm;

3W brightness can reach up to 240lm; 5W-300W is an integrated chip, which is packaged in series or parallel, mainly depending on how much current, voltage, how many strings and how many parallels. LED lens: Disposable lenses generally use PMMA, PC, optical glass, silica gel (soft silica gel, hard silica gel) and other materials. The larger the angle is, the higher the light output efficiency. With a small-angle LED lens, the light has to be shot farther.

Wavelength, The wavelength is the same, the color is the same, while the price is high. White light can be divided into warm colors (color temperature 2700-4000K), pure white (color temperature 5500-6000K), and cool white (color temperature above 7000K). Europeans prefer warm white. Red light: Wave band 600-680, of which 620 and 630 are mainly used for stage lights, and 690 is close to infrared. Blue light: Band 430-480, of which 460 and 465 stage lights are used more. Green light: Band 500-580, of which 525 and 530 stage lights are used more.

Luminous angle, LED with different uses have different light-emitting angles. Special lighting angle, higher price.

Antistatic ability, the LED lamp beads with strong antistatic ability have a long life, so the price is high. Usually, only LED lamp beads with antistatic value greater than 700V can be used for LED lighting.

Leakage current, LED lamp beads are unidirectional conductive luminous bodies. If there is a reverse current, it is called leakage. LED lamp beads with large leakage current have short life and low price.

If it is a 0.2W LED, the brightness will be lower, this also depends on your needs:

The wavelength of the 0.2W red LED is 620-625(nm), the brightness is 850-900MCD, and the VF is 1.9-2.2(v)
The 0.2W green LED has a wavelength of 520-530 (nm), a brightness of 280-350 (mcd), and a VF of 2.8-3.1 (v)
The 0.2W yellow LED has a wavelength of 590-592 (nm), a brightness of 550-600 (mcd), and a VF of 1.9-2.2 (v)
The wavelength of the 0.2W blue LED is 465-475 (nm), the brightness is 88-130 (mcd)), and the VF is 2.8-3.1V
The 0.2W white LED has a wavelength of 462-464 (nm), a brightness of 600-780mcd, and a VF of 2.8-2.9 (v)

The LED of the LED indicators can be divided into grade and non-polarity. The graded type is to divide the positive and negative grades under the DC voltage. If the wires are connected incorrectly, the LED indicators will not light up. If the voltage is above 110V, not only need to connect a resistor with matching power, but also a 4007, otherwise the LED indicators will burn out.

Non-polarity means that AC and mainstream do not need to be separated, because non-polar LED have two lamp leads, and 4007 is not required for AC, which is very convenient to use. Usually, the service life of LED is 50,000 hours.

The LED of LED indicators are also divided into two types: flashing and condensing. The basic indoor use is flashing, which emits light at a 180-degree angle. Outdoors are basically condensed, the angle of condensed light is 45 degrees, which is very dazzling, and the eyes will look a bit presbyopic, but the condensing effect is very good in the daytime outdoors.

Two-color and three-color LED are polarized LED, which must be divided into positive and negative poles. All two-color and three-color LED have a common cathode and a common anode. What determines the quality of the LED is the chip inside the LED. The larger the chip is, the better its impact resistance, and their service life is 50,000 hours.
Therefore, the quality of LED selection is the key quality point of LED indicators. If you find a professional LED indicator factory, which basically has test equipment for LED, this is very important.

Next, we will explain the resistance. The plug-in resistance used on the LED indicators is a component that directly adjusts the voltage. It is also a very important accessory. If the resistance is used improperly, it will cause the resistance to burn out and cause the LED indicators to break. How many kinds of resistors are there?

How many styles of resistors are there?

Plug-in resistors can be divided into carbon film resistors, metal film resistors, metal oxide film resistors, cement resistors, fuse resistors, wire wound resistors, high power wire wound resistors, and zero ohm resistors.

1、Carbon film resistors are hydrogen compounds that decompose under high temperature and vacuum, and are deposited on porcelain rods or tubes to form a layer of crystalline carbon film.

Its advantage is low cost, but its disadvantage is poor stability and large error. The main allowable errors are: ±5%, ±10%, and ±20%. This type is mainly used for low-demand circuit occasions. So it depends on the voltage of the LED indicators. If it is a large voltage or a wide voltage, it is more suitable to use carbon film resistors.

2、The metal film resistor heats the alloy in a vacuum and waits for the alloy to evaporate to form a conductive metal film on the surface of the porcelain rod.

Its advantages are wide resistance range, high precision resistance, low noise and low temperature coefficient. Its disadvantage is poor pulse load capability. Allowable errors are: ±0.1%, ±0.2%, ±0.5%, ±1%, most of which are used in occasions with higher accuracy requirements. If the LED indicators have high voltage requirements, metal film resistors can be used.

3、Metal oxide film resistors are hydrolyzed and deposited by spraying tin and di and other metal salt solutions onto the surface of the hot ceramic framework. This kind of resistance has good oxidation resistance and thermal stability, and the rated power range is 1/8W~50KW, which is suitable for occasions such as non-combustibility, temperature change resistance, and humidity resistance.

4、Fuse resistance, also known as fuse resistance, is a component with dual functions of resistance and fuse. These resistors heat up much faster than ordinary precision resistors or high-power resistors, and the use of a momentary impact will make the resistance element reach the melting temperature. Fusible resistors are widely used in constant voltage circuits and circuits such as battery chargers, televisions, wireless phones, and PC/CPU cooling equipment to protect against overloads.

5、Wire wound resistors are made by winding nickel-chromium alloy wires on a ceramic tube covered with organic glass coating. Its resistance value is accurate, work is stable, temperature coefficient is small, heat resistance is good, noise is small. It is suitable for circuits with low frequency and high accuracy requirements.

6、Zero ohm resistance, zero ohm resistance looks like a diode with a gangster painted in the center. The advantages of using zero-ohm resistance over simple wire connections include: easy mechanized installation and operation of the circuit, very low jumper capacitance (suitable for high-speed data lines), small footprint, and overall improvement of the characteristics of the PCB. It is inevitable that the wiring will cross when the PCB board is routed. In order to prevent the wiring from looping, a zero-ohm resistor can be added for bridging.

7、The resistance power and size of the LED indicators directly determine the voltage of the LED indicators, so it is very important to calculate the resistance value. The usual algorithm is that the conventionally used resistance size is calculated according to the voltage X current = power algorithm, but the actual resistance value is mostly larger, and the aging test is performed according to the actual voltage to ensure the overall quality of the led indicators. For example, you want a 12V LED indicators.

How to calculate the resistance of LED indicators?

There are four kinds of wires, PVC wire, Teflon wire, silicone wire and silicone braided wire.

Next, explain the usual wiring and terminal contact information of LED indicators. There are direct leads of LED indicators and screw pin connection of LED indicators.

1.Terminal wiring method. The terminal wiring method is that the LED indicators are directly connected to the terminal, usually there are 2.8 wiring pins, 4.8 wiring pins, and 6.3 wiring pins. You can go to the market to buy the 2.8 terminal receptacle and connect the wire directly to the 2.8 terminal pin, which is more convenient. You can also directly solder the wires to the pins of the 2.8 connection, and then put on a heat shrink tube to prevent leakage. If soldering is required, the pins of the LED indicators are usually silver, because the silver is easy to solder.
2. The direct lead method of LED indicators, that is, the wires are directly connected to the LED, and then lead out from the inner lead of the LED indicators. This is very convenient and can reduce the cost. What needs attention is the internal firmness of the wires and the LED indicators. Usually, glue or press the wires and the lamp holders

Together to fix the wires and the housing of the LED indicators to ensure the firmness. Also pay attention to the specifications and standards of the wires. There are four kinds of wires, PVC wire, Teflon wire, silicone wire and silicone braided wire.

PVC wire is the most conventional wire, the temperature resistance is below 90 degrees, and the price is relatively affordable. The most used LED indicators are AGW24, AGW22, AGW20, AGW18, AGW16 and other specifications.

The temperature resistance of Teflon wire can reach 260 degrees. If the product is used in a place where the high temperature resistance exceeds 200 degrees, it is recommended to use Teflon wire, but the cost is relatively high. It also has specification lines of 0.2 square, 0.3 square, 0.5 square, 0.75 square and 1 square.

Silicone wire is also a kind of high temperature resistance wire, but its temperature resistance can only reach 180 degrees, and it is usually used in large quantities in home appliances with LED indicators. For example, on a water heater, its disadvantage is that the outer skin of the wire is made of silicone material, which is easy to break, and it will leak electricity if it is broken. It also has specifications of 0.2 square, 0.3 square, 0.5 square, 0.75 square and 1 square.

The silicone braided wire is mainly a high-temperature resistant braided wire on the silicone wire, which plays a role of fire resistance, temperature resistance and abrasion resistance. Its temperature can reach 200 degrees. It is usually used in a high temperature environment like an electric fryer, and its specifications are also 0.2 square, 0.3 square, 0.5 square, 0.75 square and 1 square.

So when choosing LED indicators with a line, you have to look at what scene the LED indicators you need are used in, whether it is high temperature resistant, and if high temperature resistant, choose high temperature resistant LED indicators materials.

3.LED indicators screw pin lead method. There is a metal screw pin connection position at the tail of the LED indicators, which is convenient for wiring. Usually, it is very convenient for LED indicators to connect the wires. Just use a screwdriver to screw the screw. This is a very convenient way of wiring, very suitable for use in a small amount, you can replace it if it is broken.

Next, let’s explain the three accessories of the led indicators, the nut, the waterproof ring, and the gasket.

Let me first explain the nut of the led indicators. The nut of the led indicator has two types: plastic nut and copper nut. The outer surface of the nut has a round gear type, a six-leg nut and so on. The screw pitch of the nut of general led indicators mainly has 0.5, 0.75 and 1MM and so on. If the pitch of 0.75MM and the thickness of the pitch of 1MM are better than 3 cm, so there will be enough pitch and the copper column butt fixed. Sometimes the nut of copper material is prone to slippage and mismatching, that is, it does not match the thread pitch, we must pay attention to this problem.

Why use silicone gaskets?

Because the silicone material is resistant to high temperature, aging, softness and oil resistance, the LED indicators are installed on the panel and then covered with a silicone waterproof ring. The waterproof performance is very strong, generally reaching IP67. Such materials can be used in various scenarios. For example, the kitchen, where there is a lot of oil, put it outdoors.

The gaskets of LED indicators are generally made of stainless steel and iron, and are designed in a plum shape. Why is the quincunx type? The advantage of the quincunx type is that the gasket has several fixing points, which will make the LED indicators fixed on the panel more convenient and firmer. Most of the gaskets on the market are iron, and stainless steel is recommended. Because LED indicators are installed on the panel, it will take 5 years or even longer. If they are made of iron, they will rust after a long time.

What kind of LED indicators have standard connection terminals?

I will explain the wiring standards for the connection terminals of the LED indicators.

For the convenience of wiring, many customers usually connect the connecting terminals to the LED INDICATORS with wires, but many problems occur. Generally speaking, LED INDICATORS with wires are finished after the product is finished, so they can only be produced manually, but the consistency of the products cannot be guaranteed. If the wire of the LED indicators is too long on the terminal, it will cause the product to be energized or have poor contact, or

the terminal is not pressed on the skin, causing the terminal to be weak and many other problems, So be sure to pay attention and produce according to the following standards, especially small terminals.

1.Firstly, check the size of the wire, and then check whether the abrasive tool for the terminal matches the wire. If it does not match, it will cause the terminal to directly crush the wire and even the copper wire inside when the terminal is connected to the wire. The LED indicators will not be powered. If half or more of the copper wires in the LED indicators are broken, it may cause all the copper wires of the LED indicators to be disconnected during the transportation process, and finally the LED indicators will not be energized, which will cause great losses. There is also a mismatch between the terminal and the abrasive tool, which causes the terminal and the wire to be too loose, and will fall when pulled. So be sure to confirm whether the abrasive tool, wire and terminal are matched. After making it, use a force of 10 N to test whether it will be pulled down.

2. Are the terminals and wires connected according to the standard? There are two wiring ports on the terminals. The first wiring port is for connecting the copper wires in the wires, in order to energize the LED indicators. The second connection port is connected to the skin of the wire, so that the wire and the connection terminal are very firm and not easy to unplug. Please refer to the picture above. According to statistics, the bad terminal connections of LED indicators account for about 25%, and the proportion is still relatively high, so we must pay attention to this problem.

The above is just a piece of knowledge in the materials and usage of LED indicators. Knowing these is not enough. You also need to understand the correct production process of LED indicators. The following is the production process of producing LED indicators with lines.

What is the production process of LED indicators?

The following is the production process of the production of led indicators.

The first step is to cut off the pins of the LED. If it is the positive and negative poles, you must cut the positive pin of the LED light, then cut off the pins of the resistor, and then connect the resistor and the LED with a copper tape machine (Note that the human body must wear an electrostatic bracelet when hitting the copper tape machine, and the machine must also take electrostatic measures. If no electrostatic measures are taken, the LED lamp chip will easily be electrostatically broken during the production process and the LED will not light up, especially those LED that have been broken down and damaged will light up during the test, but their service life will become very short, causing the LED indicators to not light up later.) Next, cut off the LED and resistor pins, and then use a copper tape machine to connect the LED with resistor and Wire connection, in order to make the LED, resistor and wire connection more firmly, then use solder wire to solder the three connection points (note that you must not use rosin solder paste when using solder, because rosin solder paste will conduct electricity). Then thread the wires into the base, fix the base and the wires with a machine to ensure that the wires are not easy to fall off, then put on the lamp shade of the LED indicators, and finally do the power-on test, so that the process of the LED indicators with wires is completed.

How to determine that the quality of the LED indicators meets your standards and requirements?

Then the function of the LED indicators must be tested through the detection equipment of the LED indicators. What are the items of the LED indicators that need to be tested? The test items of LED indicators mainly include withstand voltage test, aging test, high temperature test, low temperature test, salt spray environmental protection test, waterproof level test, and tensile test, etc.

The following introduces the standards and requirements of each test.

1.Withstand voltage test, the international standard for the withstand voltage test of LED indicators is 1800V, especially those with a voltage exceeding 220V must pass the 1800V withstand voltage test. If it fails to pass, there will be a possibility of leakage, and a long time may cause the mixed power of the LED indicators to burn out.

2.Aging test, the aging test of LED indicators simulates the normal use of LED indicators on the machine. If there is a problem with the LED, resistance or other components of the LED indicators, the problem can be found through the aging test, and then the problem can be analyzed and solved, so that the problematic LED indicators will not flow to the market.

3.High temperature test, The high temperature test is to simulate the entire LED indicators in a high temperature box. For example, in the case of 150 degrees, the resistance LED or plastic or wires melt will eventually lead to the damage of the led indicators.

4.Low temperature test, if the temperature is below 40 degrees, will all the materials and LED of the led indicators cause problems?

5.The salt spray environmental protection test is to check whether some metal materials of the LED indicators pass the environmental protection test, usually within 48 hours. If it passes, it proves that the material of the LED indicators is environmentally friendly. If it fails, it means that the material of the LED indicators is not up to the standard. Environmental protection standards.

6.Waterproof test, Many LED indicators will be placed outdoors, on a boat or in the kitchen. The requirements for waterproofing are still quite high. You can know whether the LED indicators are waterproof through the waterproof test.

7.Tensile test,Many LED indicators with wires fall off after using wires. Therefore, a tensile test must be used to check the firmness of the connection between the LED indicators and the wires. The tensile force is usually about 10KG.

What international certification does the LED indicator have?

The products that have passed the LED indicators test project are generally more reliable. If you want to find a capable and reliable LED indicator production company, you need to review the factory’s international certification. The more certifications they produce, the more reliable the quality of the LED indicators they produce. You also need to see if they have the following certifications: ISO90001 quality management system certification, LED indicators waterproof certification, LED indicators UL certification, LED indicators environmental certification,LED indicators VDE certification, etc. Among them, the gold content of the LED indicators UL certification is very high. The factory that has passed this certification must have a standard LED indicator testing laboratory, and the chances of producing good quality products are very high.

If you look carefully at the material details, production process, and test process of the LED indicators. You are already a LED indicators engineer, you can ask many professional questions to the LED indicator factory. If their answers are more consistent with the content of the above LED indicators knowledge, the quality of the LED indicators they produce must be reliable, and you can buy them with confidence. Finally, you need to find out if the LED indicators factory has professional LED indicators R&D engineers. If so, their factories can provide many customized LED indicators services.